What are Rare Earth Elements?

Rare earths are fundamental building blocks of the modern economy, enabling trillions of dollars in global GDP via a wide range of clean energy, information technology, defense, and industrial applications. Mountain Pass is one of the richest deposits of rare earth elements in the world. Today, MP Materials produces about 15% of the rare earth content consumed annually. In 2023, we re-commissioned the integrated processing facilities at Mountain Pass and began producing separated and refined rare earth products with a focus on high-purity Neodymium-Praseodymium (NdPr) oxide, the primary ingredient in the world’s most efficient and highest strength permanent magnets.

  • Rare earths are a series of chemical elements found in the earth’s crust that are vital to many modern technologies.
  • Extensive processing is required to separate rare earth elements from mined ore.
  • While the elements themselves aren’t rare, ore bodies containing sufficient concentrations to make processing economically viable are exceedingly rare.
  • Unique magnetic and electrochemical properties of the elements enable technologies to perform with greater efficiency, performance, and durability—often by reducing weight, emissions, or energy consumption.
  • Rare earth-enabled technologies power global economic growth, enable life-saving products, and help shrink our carbon footprint.

SEG+ ’Heavies’ Concentrate
(Samarium / Europium / Gadolinium / Terbium / Dysprosium)

SEG+ is a combination of Samarium, Europium, Gadolinium, Terbium, and Dysprosium which MP Materials produces in a concentrate form.

EV Motors

EV Motors

Medical Devices

Medical Devices

Lasers

Lasers

Neodymium and Praseodymium (“NdPr”)

Neodymium and Praseodymium power the strongest types of rare earth magnets, which enable the conversion of electrical energy into motion via permanent-magnet motors. These motors power EVs and countless industrial processes.

EV Motors

EV Motors

Mobile Devices

Mobile Devices

Wind Turbines

Wind Turbines

Cerium

In addition to its role in various metal alloys and glass polishing compounds, Cerium reduces automobile emissions through its use in catalytic converters and enables energy efficiency by powering LED lighting.

Automotive catalysts

Automotive Catalysts

Glass polishing

Glass Polishing

LED lighting

LED lighting

Lanthanum

Lanthanum’s primary end-uses include automotive and imaging/vision applications. Lanthanum prevents corrosion in EV batteries, adds efficiency to petroleum cracking and enables specialized treatments for lenses and vision systems.

Rechargeable Batteries

Rechargeable Batteries

Night Vision Goggles

Night Vision Goggles

Camera and telescopic lenses

Camera & Telescopic Lenses

Our Facility

The Mountain Pass Rare Earth Mine and Processing Facility is the only scaled site of its kind in the Western Hemisphere. The self-contained nature of its operations – with co-located mining, milling, separations, and finishing – creates significant cost advantages and mitigates operational risks. Due to the tremendous geological advantages of the site, which averages around 7% rare earth content relative to .1% to 4% for most global deposits, MP Materials enjoys a leading cost position. Mountain Pass is a zero-discharge facility equipped with state-of-the-art environmental systems, including a dry tailings facility that recovers and recycles enough water to meet approximately 95% of need in the beneficiation and tailings management process. Mountain Pass is located immediately adjacent to an interstate highway and is easily accessible to rail and port facilities, enabling cost-efficient distribution.

MP Materials Facility
MP Materials Facility

Our Process

Mining

Bastnaesite ore is recovered from an open-pit surface mine and separated from overburden waste.

Beneficiation

Through a process of crushing, milling, conditioning, and flotation, rare earth elements are separated from waste to produce a mixed rare earth concentrate.

Separation

The mixed rare earth concentrate undergoes a complex chemical process to purify, recover, separate, and precipitate individual rare earth elements.

Finishing

Pure forms of rare earth oxides – primarily lanthanum, cerium, and NdPr oxide – are packaged and treated to meet specific customer specifications.

What We Power

Automotive
Clean Energy
Clean Energy
Digital Technologies